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Salonik, madre de Israel

 
JEWISH THESSALONIKI (Pt I)

Thessaloniki housed a major Jewish community of Sephardic origin till 1943. It 's the only known example of a city in the Jewish diaspora of this size that retained a Jewish majority for centuries.
The Jews' arrival for the most part followed the Alhambra Decree in 1492, by which the Jews of Spain were expelled from the country.
Thessaloniki's Jews were inextricably linked to its history and the influence of the community both culturally and economically was strongly felt. The community experienced a golden age in the 16th century and a progressive decline until the middle of 20th century.
After the outbreak of WWII the history of the Jews of Thessaloniki took a tragic course. The implementation of the Nazis' Final Solution in Greece resulted in the near-extermination of the entire community.
The most important structures owned, built for or built by Jews that still survive are:
a few deserted buildings in Analipsi, Depot and Faliro Quarters
-Casa Benveniste (Tefik Efendi) (ca 1907, Οικία Μπενβενίστε, Delfon & Paraskevopoulou & Konstandinidi str.),
-Italia Yassan Synagogue (ca 1907, 48 Velissariou str., originally built as Eliezer & Yakov Nefoussi Mansion, in 1931 bought by the Jewish Community to house the Yosef Issac Nissim Foundation and the Italia Yassan Syanagogue (destroyed in the 1917 Fire), currently deserted)
-Karolos Allatini Orphanage House (ca 1898, Ορφανοτροφείο Καρόλος Αλλατίνι, Spartis & Paraskevopoulou & Vizandiou str., currently deserted),
-Kazes School (ca 1920, Σχολή Καζές, Papanastassiou & Italias str., aka Ayios Stilianos Municipal Asylum for infants, Δημοτικό Βρεφοκομείο Άγιος Στυλιανός),
-Marocco J. - Bourla Mansion (ca 1906, 133 Vassilissis Olgas & Sindika str.)
a few deserted houses and shops in the French Quarter (namely in Ayiou Mina, Edessis, Katouni, Vassileos Irakliou and Verias str.)
-Algava-Shevah-Hassid Building (ca 1925, 3 Vassileos Irakliou str., plans by Kambanelos G.),
-Kirtsi-Bensussam Hani (ca 1900, 5 Edessis str.)
few buildings scattered around the city center such as:
-Casa Cuño (ca 192...., Οικία Κούνιο, Isavron str.),
-Casa Fedi (ca 192...., Οικία Φέδι, Antigonidon str.),
-Casa Parente (ca 1908, Οικία Παρέντε, Vakhou & Promitheos str., about to be demolished),
-Casa Pichón (ca 1922, Οικία Πιτσόν, 3 Klissouras str., in the former Rogos Quarter, plans by M. Roubens),
-Casa X (ca 1925, Οικία X, 7 Klissouras str., in the former Rogos Quarter, plans by M. Roubens),
-Alberto & Allegra Ergas Residence (ca 1925, 19 Solomou & 41 Venizelou str., plans by Yotopoulos Konstandinos),
-Haim de Boton Building ( ca 1924, aka Zenith Building, Μέγαρο Ισαάκ & Ροβερτόν Χαϊμ δε Μποτόν, 8 Mitropoleos & Venizelou str., plans by Jacques Moshe),
-Hasson - Nahmia Residence (ca 1928, 56 Olimbou str., plans by Manoussos G.),
-Hirsch Arcade (ca 1925/1952, housing till recently the Jewish Community of Thessaloniki HQs, demolished in 2008),
-Nea ilisia Arcade (ca 1924, Ermou & Venizelou str.),
-Melka (ca 1906, Ayiou Mina & Venizelou str.),
-Mordoh Building (ca 192..., 23 Tsimiski str. & 15 Komninon str.),
-Mois Hassid Complex (ca 1925, Vas. Irakliou & Kapodistriou str., 2-3 buidings),
-Morpurgo Building (ca 1929, 25 Tsimiski str. & 18 Komninon str.),
-New Market (ca 19 , Ermou str.),
-Saltiel - Salem Building (ca 1925, Kapodistriou & Paikou & Dragoumi & Valaoritou str.),
-Sigger-Rozi Building (ca 193..., 36 Venizelou & Spandoni str.),
-Stein Building (ca 1908, Venizelou & Kalapothaki str., plans by Ernst Levi)
-Vegetable Market Building (ca 192.., Amvrosiou Mediolanon str.)
few industrial buildings scattered around the east part of the city [vide INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS],
-Allatini Tile Industry (after 1917, est. 1858, Thermi),
-Benusilio Silk Factory (ca 189..., Pilea)
few industrial buildings scattered around the west part of the city
VILKA (vide INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS)
FIX (vide INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS)
and very few deserted hovels in former "Baron Hirsch Quarter", Ramona (Rezi Vardar, aka Ksirokrini) Quarter, Ayia Paraskevi Quarter and Stavroupoli District.

Album was created 9 years 2 months ago and modified 4 years 9 months ago
 
JEWISH THESSALONIKI (Pt II)

Thessaloniki housed a major Jewish community of Sephardic origin till 1943. It 's the only known example of a city in the Jewish diaspora of this size that retained a Jewish majority for centuries.
The Jews' arrival for the most part followed the Alhambra Decree in 1492, by which the Jews of Spain were expelled from the country.
Thessaloniki's Jews were inextricably linked to its history and the influence of the community both culturally and economically was strongly felt. The community experienced a golden age in the 16th century and a progressive decline until the middle of 20th century.
After the outbreak of WWII the history of the Jews of Thessaloniki took a tragic course. The implementation of the Nazis' Final Solution in Greece resulted in the near-extermination of the entire community.
The most important structures owned, built for or built by Jews that still survive are:

ARRIGONI PIERRO (vide Arrigoni)
-Beni Fernandez Mansion aka Hirsch Mansion (ca 19 , Έπαυλη Φερνάντεζ- Χιρς, 144 Vassilissis Olgas street),
-Dino Fernandez Mansion (ca 1910, aka Villa Bianca - Βίλα Μπιάνκα, 180 Vassilissis Olgas street),
-Hirsch Hospital (ca 1902, aka Ipokratio Hospital - Νοσοκομείο Ιπποκράτειο, Nea Egnatia street),

FERNANDEZ ELI HASSID (vide Pleyber - Hassid Fernandez)
-Asher Israel Building (ca 1925, Ayias Sofias & Ermou str., in collaboration with J. Pleyber),
-Cohen Building (ca 1925, Venizelou & Vassileos Irakliou str.)
-Gategno - Florentin Building (ca 1924, Tsimiski & Venizelou & Ayiou Mina str., in collaboration with J. Pleyber),
-Hotel Excelsior (ca 1929, Komninon & Mitropoleos str., in collaboration with J. Pleyber),
-Hotel Tourist (ca 1923-9, Komninon & Mitropoleos str., in collaboration with J. Pleyber),
-Mallah Building (ca 1924, Ermou & Venizelou str., in collaboration with J. Pleyber),
-Nahmia Building (ca 1925, Tsimiski str., in collaboration with J. Pleyber),

GENNARI L. (vide Gennari L.)
-Arditti - Benroubi Building (ca 1925, Dragoumi & Solomou str. up),
-Cine Dionysia (ca 1925, Ayias Sofias str., demolished in 1965),
-Haim Cohen Building ( ca 1927, Paikou & Singrou & Valaoritou str., reconstruction of the Ismael Pasha Hani, inscription)

MANOUSSOS G. (vide Manoussos)
-Berakha - Revah Building (ca 1925, Egnatia str.),
-Errera Building (ca 1925, Katouni str.),
-Filipou str. Residence (ca 1930, 43 Filipou str.),
-Juliette Moshon Residence (ca 1928, 22 Paleon Patron Yermanou str.),
-Hasson - Nahmias Residence (ca 1928, 56 Olimbou str.),
-Hotel Atlantis (ca 1925, Egnatia str.),
-Makedonikon Cinema (ca 1930, 6 Margariti str.),

MODIANO ELI (vide Modiano)
-Alessandro Manzoni School (ca 1933, currently property of the National Bank of Greece, Dimokratias Square),
-Cite Saoul (Saoul Arcade - Στοά Σαούλ, [originally built by Vitaliano Poselli (ca 1881)], partly destroyed by the 1917 Fire and partly reconstructed in 1929 by Eli Modiano),
-Customs House (ca.1910, Telonio - Τελωνείο, Kundurioti & Salaminos str., currently housing the Port's Passengers Terminal),
-Harbour Warehouses (ca.1910, Αποθήκες Τελωνείου, currently housing among others the Photography Museum and the Cinematography Museum),
-Hotel Luxembourg (ca. 1924, Ξενοδοχείο Λουξεμβούργο, Kalapothaki & komninon str),
-Ionian & Popular Bank Building (ca 1925, Ionos Dragoumi & Ayiou Mina str.),
-"Levi" Building (ca 1924, 26 Venizelou & Vassileos Irakliou str.),
-Mandalidis Mansion (ca 1931, currently property of the Aristotelio University, Nikis Avenue),
-Modiano Mansion (ca. 1906, Βίλα Μοδιάνο - Λαογραφικό Μουσείο, currently housing the Folk Art & Ethnology Museum, 68 Vassilissis Olgas street),
-Modiano Market (ca.1922 in colaboration with Olifent, Αγορά Μοδιάνο, Ermou & Vassileos Irakliou str., currently housing various groceries shops, bars, taverns etc)

MOSHE JACQUES (vide Moshe)
-Alvo Building (ca 1925, Ionos Dragoumi str.),
-Boton Leon Building (ca 1925, Mitropoleos str.),
-Benroubi Building (ca 1924, Valaoritou & Kapodistriou str.),
-Couenca - Saoul Building (ca 1925, D ragoumi & Kapodistriou str.),
-Gattegno School (ca 1928, Delfon 62 & Miaouli str., currently a primary school),
-Hananel Naar (ca 1925, 4 Ayiou Mina str.),
-Hotel Continental (ca 1920/1929, currently Hotel Andromeda, Kalapothaki & Komninon str.),
-Logis Veritas Free Mason Arcade (ca 1926, Katholikon 3 & Vilara str., property of Bensussam, Benusio & Molho),
-Matanoth Laevionim Building (ca 1930, currently houses the Jewish Primary School, Fleming str.)
-Menahem - Navarro Building (ca 1925, Vas. Irakliou str.)
-Navarro Building (ca 1924, Vas. Irakliou str.)
-Olympion Residence (ca 1949, Aristotelous & Mitropoleos str.),
-Olympos-Naoussa Building (ca 1925, 5 Nikis Avenue),
-Ouziel - Cohen Building (ca 1925, Egnatia & Venizelou str.)
-Ouziel Complex (ca 1927, Papandreou str.)

PEONIDIS XENOFONDAS (vide Peonidis)
-Pelossof & Amarillo & Pardo Arcade (ca 1924, aka the Old Post Office - Παλιό Ταχυδρομείο, 22 Tsimiski street, next to Hirsch Arcade),
-Jeborga (Salem) Mansion (ca 1878, aka Former Italian Consulate - Πρώην Ιταλικό Προξενείο, 20 Vassilissis Olgas street),
-Seifulah Pasha Mansion (ca 19 , aka Mordoh Mansion - Βίλα Μορδόχ, Municipal Gallery - Δημοτική Πινακοθήκη, 25 Martiou & 162 Vassilissis Olgas str.)

PEONIDIS FILIMONAS
-Kazes Building (ca 1924, Κτήριο Καζές, Ayiou Mina & Ionos Dragoumi & Tsimiski street),

POSELLI SALVATORE
-Alvaro Yeni (ca 1924, Vas. Irakliou str.) blue
-Samuel Saltiel (ca 1924, Dragoumi & Solomou str. byz.)

POSELLI VITALIANO (vide Poselli)
-Allatini Mills (ca 1896-1900, Mύλοι Αλλατίνι, Papandreou & Sofouli str.)
-Allatini Mansion (ca 1888, Villa Allatini - Βίλα Αλλατίνι, 198 Vassilissis Olgas & Ploutonos & Papandreou str.),
-Allatini Mansion in the French Quarter (ca 1874, Singrou & Valaoritou & Vilara str., reconstructed by Roubens in the 20s),
-Banque d' Athenes (ca1904, aka Museum of the Jewish presence in Thessaloniki - Μουσείο Εβραικής παρουσίας, 13 Ayiou Mina str.),
-Banque de Salonique (ca 1904, aka Stoa Malakopi - Στοά Μαλακοπή, est. 1888, Singrou & Vilara str.),
-Cite Saoul (ca 1881, Saoul Arcade - Στοά Σαούλ, Vassileos Irakliou str.),
-Morpurgo Mansion (ca 1906, aka Villa Zardinidi - Bίλα Ζαρντινίδη,16 Heronias str.)

ROUBENS MAXIMILIANOS (vide Max. Roubens)
-Aron Mois Building (ca 1931, 9 Aristotelous str.),
-Allatini Mansion in the French Quarter (originally built by Vitaliano Poselli (ca 1874), but reconstructed by Roubens in 1929),
-Hotel Grande Bretagne (ca. 1925, Egnatia str., currently housing University faculties),
-Hotel ilisia (ca.1924, Egnatia str.),
-Hotel Kastoria (ca. 1925, Egnatia str.),
-Mallah & Sevi Building (ca 1928, Leondos Sofou & Valaoritou str.),
-Matarasso & Alcheh Building (ca 1926, Katouni str.)
-Shalom Mansion (ca. 1880, Miaouli & Vasilissis Olgas str.)
-A10 (ca 1925, 10 Aminda str. ),

ZAHARIADIS - KOKOROPOULOS
(vide ZAHARIADIS - KOKOROPOULOS )
-Benveniste - Simha Building (ca 1925, Tsimiski & Ionos Dragoumi str.),
-Bourla- Levi Arcade (ca 1925, Rogoti & Venizelou str.),
-Hotel Modern (ca 1924, currently Kinissi Palace, Egnatia str., for Sciacchi Bros)

Album was created 7 years 11 months ago and modified 7 years 4 months ago
 
the beginning of the end (Platia Eleftherias - Liberty Square - Πλατεία Ελευθερίας)

http://abravanel.wordpress.com/2009/06/06/photos_from_shoah_in_salonica/

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SYNAGOGUES

Surviving Syanagogues

1. Monastiriotes Synagogue (ca 1925-27, 37 Singrou str., named after Monastiri, a small town in northern Macedonia (currently in FYROM), the place where the founding members (Ida Aroesty was the main donor) originally came from, plans by Eli Levi),

Monastirli Jewish families Albala | Alkotser | Aroesty / Aresty / Arueste | Baker / Beahhaar / Ben Yakaar | Calderón | Camhi / Kamhi | Cassorla / Kassorla / Elias | Castro | Chame | Ergas | Esformas | Farash / Farraggi / Farrache | Fermo | Franco | Hasson | Israel | Levi / Levy | Massot | Mayo | Nahmias | Navon | Negrin | Pardo | Passo / Pesso | Rabeno | Russo | Sarfati | Sid | Testa | Yisrael | Yona

2. Yad Lezikaron (ca 1984, 24 Vassileos Irakliou str., where Bourla Synagogue used to be)

3. Italia Yassan (ca 1907, 48 Velissariou str., originally built as Eliezer & Yakov Nefuse Mansion, in 1931 bought by the Jewish Community to house the Yosef Issac Nissim Foundation and the Italia Yassan Syanagogue (destroyed by the 1917 Fire). currently deserted).

other old Synagogues (destroyed)

Vardar (St. Voutira str., Baron Hirsch Quarter)

Talmud Torah Hirsch ( Baron Hirsch Quarter)

Larissa (38 Promitheos str.)

Ets Haim (Saint Paraskevi quarter)

Serrero (5 kalvou str.)

Neve Chedek (49 Spartis str.)

Ismael (8 Kiprou str.)

Beth Itshak Herrera (73 Makedonias str.)

Beraha (12 Afroditis str.)

Bourla (Vas. Irakliou & Komninon str)

Beth Yehuda (2 Menekse str.)

Castilla (Kalamaria District)

Yahia (Kalamaria District)

Kalamaria (Kalamaria District)

Beth Israel (151 Settlement, blown up by the Nazis)

Beth Saoul (Saadi Alevi str., blown up by the Nazis)

Italia Haddash Sarfati (Pitakou & Thalitos str.)

Mayot Seni (6 Settlement)

Askenaz (47 Vas. Irakliou str.)

Lisbon Haddash (74 Vas. Olgas str.)

Or Haim (64 Vas. Olgas str.)

Kiana (3 Valaoritou & Tandalidou str.)

Gerush (Ptolemeon str.)

Hassid (37 Andigonidon str.)

Mograbi (Hirsch Hospital)

Ar Gavoa (Harilaou District)

Beth Yakob Chegno (22 Filipou str.)

Ahabat Olam (42 Ptolemeon str.)

Bello (60 Miaouli str.)

Budo (151 Settlement)

Otrnato (Karagats District)

Beth El (109 Mitropoleos str.)

Talmud Torah Agadol (3 Edmond Rostand str.)

Sicilia Yassan (3 Rogoti str.)

Italia Yassan (Tsimiski & Diehl str.)

Sicilia Hadash (13 Sarandaporou str.)

Nehohe Shalom ( Kastorias str.)

Marmores (7 Omirou str.)

Ezrati (73 Vassileos Petrou str.)

Carasso (16 Spartis str.)

Bezes (1 Filias str.)

Old Thessaloniki Synagogues and the related families (all of them destroyed in the 1917 Great Fire).

Mayor (Mallorca)- (Velissariou str.)
Cuenca, Ferrera, Arotchas, Baraja, Ben Mayor, Torres, Francés.

Provincia (Provence) - (Vardar District)Yeoshua, Barouch, Menachem, Eskenazy, Haim, Pitchón, Paladino.

Estrouk (León) - (14 kalvou str.)
Pinto, Chiniyo, Aragon, Faradji.

Catalán Hadash (Cataluña) - (Velissariou str.)Saporta, Arditti, Aliman, Mandel, Shalem, Almosnino, Moussa.

Bet Aharon (Galicia) - (Vardar District)Cassouto, Saragoussi, Toledano, Franco, Avayou, Israel, Leal.

Aragón (Aragón) - Chiniyo, Pinto, Azouz, Hanania, Yona, Nahoum, Levi, Sarfati.

Portugal (Lisboa) - (Parodos Kassandrou str.)
Melo, Ferrera, Raphael, Arari,Rangel, Miranda, Boueno, Hernandez, Perez, Pinto.

Evora (Evora) - ( Ahce Mecit Quarter)
Pinto, Ovadia, Attias, Rouvio, Ergas, Amarillio, Bivas.

Shalom (Extremadura) - (Vardar District) Molho, Pérez, Benveniste, Albukerk, Kuriat, Litcho, Saloum, Alvo.

Sicilia (Sicilia) - Ouziel, Berakha, Hazan, Segoura, Shami, Shaban, Menashe, Haver, Levi.

Calabria (Calabria) - Profeta, Rousso, Comprado.


References
Molho, Michael. Les Juifs de Salonique. 1956.
Mazower, Mark. Salonica, city of Ghosts. 2005
Saporta y Beja, Refranes de los Judíos Sefardíes: y otras locuciones típicas de los sefardíes de Salónica y otros sitios de Oriente. Ameller/Riopiedras. 1978
Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture. EE.UU. 2004.
Molho, Rena, La destrucción de la judería de Salónica.


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Ouziel Complex - Το συγκρότημα Ουζιέλ


plans by Jacques Moshe (1927)

The Ouziel Complex is a block of one-storey houses in Papandreou street. The complex covers an entire square block (Papandreou & Ploutonos & Heronias & Dimitrakopoulou str.) on the south side of the Depot (= east depot of Thessaloniki's old tramway).
The Complex was named after David Ouziel, a major stockholder of the Tramway Company. Most of these 25 detached or semi-detached houses were built in varying degrees of eclecticistical style and they have been declared a protected architectural monument by the greek Ministry of Culture in the 80s.

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Old Jewish Cemetery - University Campus

On July 11 1942 some 9,000 Jewish males aged 18-45 were forcibly assembled by the Nazis at Liberty Square (Platia Eleftherias). About 2,000 of them were sent to forced labour camps. The rest were kept back home in exchange for a huge ransom. The Jewish communities of Thessaloniki and Athens paid some of the ransom; the remaining funds came from the transfer of the Jewish cemetery of Salonika to the city's municipality, who used the memorial stones of the 500-year-old cemetery as a building material. The cemetery was heavily pillaged and eventually desecrated by german soldiers soon afterwards. Finally, after the war, the university campus was built over the cemetery's ruins.

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Ghettos - the Campbell Pogrom

Ghettos

The first two Ghettos in the city were established by the Germans in the Fleming District (Miaouli Ghetto) and Singrou District(Singrou Ghetto), in the east and the west part of the city respectively. These were formerly neighbourhoods with a dense, yet not exclusively Jewish population. There was no ghetto in the city before it was occupied by the Germans.

(Source: Mark Mazower, Inside Hitler's Greece: The Experience of Occupation, 1941-44, New Haven and London)

The third Ghetto was established in the Baron Hirsch Quarter, one of the poorest Jewish working class neighbourhoods accross the Old Train Station. During the German occupation it was turned into a concentration camp, infact into a place of martyrdom, where the Nazis assembled the Jews before they deported them to death camps in Poland.

The Campbell Pogrom

During the night of June 29, 1931 and continuing into the early hours of the next morning, the entire Jewish settlement of Camp Campbell was destroyed by fire and 500 families made homeless, when christian Greeks, members of the fascist organisation E.E.E. unleashed a pogrom.

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jewish community (life and days)

Thessaloniki housed a major Jewish community of Sephardic origin till 1943. It 's the only known example of a city in the Jewish diaspora of this size that retained a Jewish majority for centuries.

The Jews' arrival for the most part followed the Alhambra Decree in 1492, by which the Jews of Spain were expelled from the country.
Thessaloniki's Jews were inextricably linked to its history and the influence of the community both culturally and economically was strongly felt. The community experienced a golden age in the 16th century and a progressive decline until the middle of 20th century.

After the outbreak of WWII the history of the Jews of Thessaloniki took a tragic course. The implementation of the Nazis' Final Solution in Greece resulted in the near-extermination of the entire community.

The Jews initially settled in Thessaloniki in 140 BC coming from Alexandria. Flavius Josephus talks about Jews in Macedonia and further reference to them is made in a letter from Herodes to Caligula dated 10 AD.

Another important reference to the presence of an organized Jewish Community in Thessaloniki is to be found in the Acts of the Apostles. The relevant passage informs us that Paul visited the city in 50 AD and preached at the local Synagogue.

There is evidence of a continuous presence of a Jewish Community in Thessaloniki in Roman and Byzantine times. These Jews were called "Romaniotes". They had hellenized names and spoke Greek. In the middle of the 14th century more Jews arrived in Thessaloniki from Western and Central Europe, Sicily and Italy.

However, the most significant settlement was that of 15-20.000 Spanish Jews (Sepharadim) who, being percecuted by the Catholic kings Ferdinand and Isabella and the Holy Inquisition, left Spain and settled in Thessaloniki in 1492. More exile Jews from Sicily, Portugal and North Africa arrived as well. All these people settled in Thessaloniki which was almost totally deserted after its conquest by the Turks in 1430. They occupied the area from Vardari Square to Diagonios (Pavlou Mela) Street and from Egnatia Street to the waterfront promenade.

Demographically, the Jews were the dominant element of the city and turned it into a first rate commercial center. The Sepharadim distinguished themselves in the field of textiles, worked in the mines of Gallikos River, founded the first printing house in Thessaloniki in 1520 and many of them distiguished themselves as rabbis, physicians, philosophers, poets and lawteachers. Thus, the fame of Thessaloniki spread all over Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. This is why Thessaloniki was given the honorary title of "Mother of Israel".

The prosperous period was interrupted at the beginning of the 17th century. Commerce received a blow after the discovery of new sea routes and the city itself suffered consecutive fires and epidemics. Still, the determining event was the appearance of a self-proclaimed Messiah, Sabetai Sevi (1655). His popularity alarmed the Ottoman Authorities who arrested him and condemned him to death (1666). In order to save his life Sabetai Sevi converted to Islam. Three hundred Jewish families followed his example.

This mass apostasy truly shook the community which recovered only as late as the middle of the 19th century. From 1873 on the Jews received advanced European education thanks to the Alliance Israelite Universelle Schools. It was at that time that the first newspaper ever was published in Thessaloniki. It was the Jewish paper "EL LUNAR" (1864). Industrial development was launched too, with the big steam mill of the Italian-Jews of the Allatini family (1854).

The Jews dominated the commercial scene, were active in all professions and were by far the largest labour force in the city. In 1891, the Jewish Community founded the working-class neighbourhoods of Baron Hirsch and Kalamaria and established a whole chain of brilliant and unique charity institutions. They created a welfare system that has not been equaled in any other Diaspora community (Allatini and Mair Aboave orphanages, the Baroness de Hirsch Hospital, a Mental Asylum, Saoul Modiano Old People's Home, Bikour Holim Health Organization, etc.). The community had more than 30 Synagogues, numerous chapels and parish schools and the great traditional "Talmoud Torah Agadol" School. After the revolution of 1908 the socialist organization "Federation" was founded and the first Zionist groups made their appearance (Bene Sion, Kadima Macabbe, Misrahi, etc.).

On October 26, 1912 Thessaloniki becomes Greek again. The leaders of the Community meet King George I and the Prime Minister El. Venizelos who promise to respect the rights of the community and guarantee equal rights.
According to the Greek Authorities Census the Jews of Thessaloniki were 61,439 as compared to 45,867 Muslims, 39,936 Greeks and 10,600 people of other origin.
A few years later the City was devasted by the 1917 fire. The Community was cruelly hit. It numbered 53,000 homeless members. Almost all synagogues, schools and charity institutions were destroyed.

Many Jews emigrated in the period between the two Wars, especially after the arson of the Campbell refugee camp by extremists (1931). Most of them settled in Palestine. Still, in 1940 the Community numbered more than 50,000 people. The Jews of Thessaloniki lived peacefully along with their Christian neighbours. They fought bravely for their homeland during the 1940-41 War.

Thessaloniki's occupation by the Axis Forces (April 9, 1941) was the beginning of the end. The Nazis applied anti-Jewish measures from the very first days. They forbade the admission of Jews to cafes, cinemas etc. They took over the Hirsch Hospital and many Jewish houses, imprisoned members of the Community Council, looted the Community offices, destroyed its archives and all Jewish libraries. On July 11, 1942 all male Jews between 18 and 45 years of age were ordered to present themselves at Eleftherias Square. After incredible humiliations, their names were taken down and they were led to labour camps. The Community paid a 2,5 billion drachmas ranson to free them. At the end of the same year all Jewish enterprises were confiscated and the more than 2000 year old Jewish Cemetery was destroyed.

As of February 1943 the Jews vere obliged to wear a Yellow Star badge on their breasts and live only in certain areas (ghetto). On March 15, 1943 the first train left for the death camps of Auschwitz and Birkenau. Another eighteen convoys would follow. Their destination was the place of their extermination. A very small number managed to escape thanks to the help of Christian friends or joined the Resistance Forces. Only few Jews returned to Thessaloniki after its liberation in October 1944 and together with few refugees from the death camps they managed to start a new life from the ruins.

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Demolished/destroyed jewish related monuments

Beth Saoul Synagogue (ca 1898, Ethnikis Aminas str., destroyed by the Nazis in 1943),
Carasso Arcade (ca 192..., demolished in 1959),
Ida Mansion (ca 1886, Vassilissis Olgas & Fleming str., where the Italian Cultural Institute is today ) (demolished in 1959),
ilion Cinema (ca 19..., Dimokratias Square, Langada str.) (property of Attas & Segura) (demolished in 2000)
Passage Lombardo (ca 18..., Frankon & Leondos Sofou str., demolished in 1967)
Samuel Hassid Mansion (ca 1907)
Saias Textile industry

Album was created 8 years 3 months ago and modified 7 years 10 months ago
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Jewish Settlements

"151" Settlement
"9" Settlement
Baron Hirsch
Campbell
Kalamaria (Kaloumba)
Karagatsia
Rezi Vardar (Ramona)

Album was created 8 years 7 months ago
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